The here is more to the Xline command than you have seen in the exercisesot ti)’is chpter. Here is a list of the Xline options and their use.
The wall facing the balcony is now complete. To finish off the unit, you need to
show a handrail and the comers of the balcony wall.
1. Offset the bottom line of the balcony 3″ toward the top of the drawing. Metric users should offset the line 7.6 units.
2. Create a new layer called F-rail, and assign this offset line to it.
3. Add a 5″ (13cm for metric users) horizontal line to the lower comers of the balcony, as shown in Figure 5.19.
4. Now choose Draw > Block» Base from the pull-down menu to set the base point at the lower-left corner of the balcony at the location shown in Figure 5.19.
5. Change the lines indicatmg walls to the Wall layer, and put the sliding glass door on the Door layer.
6. Zoom back to the previous view. Your drawing should now look like Figure 5.20.
7. Click File:> Save to save the drawing.
Your study .importmcnt unit plan is now complete. The exercises you’ve just comspleted show you a typical set of operations you’ll perform while building your drawings. In fact, nearly Sd percent of what you will do in AutoCAD is represented here.
Now, to review the drawing process, and to create a drawing you’ll use later, you’re going to draw the apartment building’s lobby. As you follow the steps, refer to Figure 5.21.
As is usual in floor plans, the elevator is indicated by the box with the large X through it, and the stair shaft is indicated by the box with the row of vertical lines through it. If you are in a hurry, there is a finished version of this file on the companion CD-ROM.
Take the following steps to draw the apartment building lobby:
1. Create a new file called Lobby, using the Unit file as a prototype. (Open the Unit file, choose File >- Save’As, and enter Lobby for the new filename).
2. Erase the entire unit (Erase )- AII).
3 Degin by drawing the three main rectangles that represent the outlines of the stair shaft, the elevator shaft. and the lobby.
4. To draw the stairs, offset the stair shaft’s left wall to the right a distance of 4′ (122cm). This creates the first line representing the steps.
5. Array this line in one row of ten columns, using 11″(2&m) column spacing.
6. Draw the center line dividing the two flights of stairs.
7. Draw the elevator and insert the door. Practice using Xlines here.
8. Draw the door jambs. Edit the door openings to aud the door headers. Your plan should resemble the one in Figure 5.21, step 4.
9 Once you are finished, save the Lobby file.
How to Quickly Set the Current layer to That of an Existing Object
As your list of layers grows, you may find It difficult to quickly locate the exact layer you want.’ You may know that you want to draw objects on the same layer as an existing object in a drawing, buryou.are n?t sure what that layer is.
In previous versions of AutoCAD, you would have to take the following steps:
1. Determine the layer of the object whose layer you want to match.
2: Open the-layer list.
3. Scrof down the list until you find tbe layer name.
4. Select the layer,
If the list of layers is quite long, you may forget the name of the layer before you find it in the list.
Aut00AD offers the Make Object’s Layer Current tool to help you easily set the current layer, This tool can be found on the Object Properties tool bar next to the Layers too.
The Make Object’s layer Current too! is a simple yet powerful tocl that lets you set the current layer by selecting an object in the drawing instead of selecting its name from a list. To use it. click the Mal-:eObject’s Layer Current tool and then click the object whose layer you want to make current. To’ ” reduces the three-step or four-step process of earlier AutoCAD versions to one dic+.Remember this tool the next time you are faced “lith a drawing that has a very large list of layers,
Finding Distances Along Arcs
You’ve seen how you can use lines to help locate objects and geometry in your drawing. But if you need to find distances along a curved object such as an arc, lines don’t always help. This section describes two ways to find exact distances on arcs. Try these exercises when you’re not working through the main tutorial.
Finding a Point at a Particular Distance from Another Point
At times you’ll need to find the location of a point on an arc that lies at a known distance from another point on the arc. The distance can be described as a cord of the arc, but how do you find the exact cord location? To find a cord along an arc, follow these steps
1. Click the Circle tool on the Draw toolbar or type C.J.
2. Use the Endpoint 0-‘1)track dick the endpoint of an arc.
3. At the Speci fy radi us of circle.1e or [Di ameterJ : prompt, enter
The length of the cord distance YO’l wish to locate along the arc.
The point where the circle intersects the arc is the endpoint of the cord distance from the endpoint of th= arc (see Figure 5.22). You can then use the Intersect Osnap override to select the circle and arc intersection.
Finding an Exact Distance Along an Arc
To find an exact distance along an arc or CUITe (nonlinear), or to mark off specific distance increments along an arc or curve, do the following:
1. Choose Format >Point Style from the pull-down menu to open the Point Style dialog box.
2. In the Point Style dialog box, click the icon that looks like an X, in the top row. Also be sure the Set Size Relative to Screen radio button is selected. Then click OK.
3. Choose Draw >Point >Measure from the pull-down menu or type me.
4. At the Se1 ect object to measure: prompt, click the arc near the end from which you wish to find the distance.
5. At the Speci fy 1ength of segment or [810ck]: prompt, enter the distance you are-interested in. A series of Xs appears on the arc, marking off the specified. distance along the arc. You can select the exact location of the Xs . using the Node Osnap override
The Measure command also works on Bezier curves. You’ll get a more detailed look at the Measure command in Chapter 13.
As you work with AutoCAD, you’ll find that constructing temporary geometry such as the circle and points in the two foregoing examples will help you solve problems in new ways. Don’t hesitate to experiment! Remember, you’ve always got the Save and Undo commands to help you recover from mistakes.
Changing the Length of Objects
Suppose, after finding the length of an arc, you realize you need to lengthen the arc by a specific amount. The Modify ~ Lengthen command lets you lengthen or -;horten arcs, lines, splines, and elliptical arcs. Here’s how to lengthen an arc.
1. Click the Lengthen tool on the Modify toolbar or type length
2. At the Select an object or [DEltajPercentjTotaljDYnam;c]: prompt,
type T.J, 3. At the Specify total 1ength or [Angl e] <1. 0000»: prompt, enter the length you want for the arc.
4. AttheSelect an object to change or [Undo]: prompt, click the arc
you wish to change, Besure to click at a point nearest the end you want to lengthen, The arc increases in length to the size you specified.
The Lengthen command also shortens an object if it is currently longer than the
value you enter. . In this short example, you have learned how to change an object to a specific length. You can use other criteria to change an object’s length, using these options available in the Lengthen command:
DElta Lets you lengthen or shorten an object by a specific length. To specify an angle rather than a length, use the Angle suboption.
Percent Lets you increase or decrease the length of an object by a percentage of its current length.
Total Lets you specify the total length or angle of an object.
DYnamic Lets you graphically change the length of an object using your cursor.