For the next object, the bathtub, you will use some new commands to layout parts of the drawing. This will help you get a feel for the kind of planning you must do to use AutoCAD effectively. You’ll also get a chance to use some of the keyboard shortcuts built into AutoCAD. First, though, go back to the previous view of your drawing, and arrange some more room to work.
1. Return to your previous view, the one shown in Figure 3.7.A quick way to do this is to click the Zoom Previous tool on the Standard toolbar, or Choose View >- Zoom >- Previous. Your view returns to the one you had before the last Zoom command.
You’ll begin the bathtub by using the Line command to draw a rectangle 2′-8″x5′-O” (81cm x 152cm for metric users) on the left side of the drawing area. For a change this time, you’ll use a couple of shortcut methods: the Line command’s keyboard shortcut and the Direct Distance method for specifying distance and direction.
2. Turn the Grid Snap mode on by right-clicking the SNAP button on the status bar and selecting Grid Snap from the popup menu.
3. Type L↵ and pick the coordinate location 0’_9″,0’_10″at the Specify first point: prompt. Metric users use the coordinate 24.0000,27.0000 You can either use the cursor in conjunction with the coordinate readout or enter the coordinate from the keyboard. Metric users can leave off the zero decimal values while entering coordinates through the keyboard.
4. Place your cursor so that the rubber-banding line is pointing directly to the left and type 2’8″; then press ↵for the first side of the tub. Metric users should enter 81.J. Notice that the rubber-banding line is now fixed at the length you typed.
5. Now point the rubber-banding line upward toward the top of the screen and type 5′; then press .J for the next side. Metric users should enter 152↵
6. Point the rubber-banding line directly to the right of the last point and type 2’8″ (81 for metric users); then press .J for the next side.
7. Type C↵ to close the rectangle.
Now you have the outline of the tub. Notice that when you enter feet and inches from the keyboard, you must avoid hyphens or spaces. Thus, 2 feet 8 inches is typed as 2’8″. Also notice that you didn’t have to enter the at sign (@) or angle specification. Instead, you used the Direct Distance method for specifying direction and distance. You can use this method for drawing lines or moving and copying objects at right angles. The Direct Distance method is less effective if you want to specify exact angles other than right angles.
Besides the Direct Distance method, you used a keyboard shortcut to start the Line command, instead of using the Line tool on the Draw tool bar.
Using the Layout
Now you will begin to draw the inside of the tub, starting with the narrow end. You will use your offset lines as references to construct the arcs that make up the tub. Also in this exercise, you’ll set up some of the Osnap tools to be available automatically whenever AutoCAD expects a point selection.
1. Choose Tools >Drafting Settings, then select the Object Snap tab. You can also type os↵. You can also right-click the OSNAP button on the status bar, then select Settings from the popup menu.
2. Press the Clear All button at the right side of the dialog box. This turns off any options that might be selected ill this dialog box.
3. Click the check boxes labeled Endpoint, Midpoint, and Intersection so that an X appears in the boxes and make sure the Object Snap On option is checked; then click OK.
You’ve just set up the Endpoint, Midpoint, and Intersection Osnaps to be on . by default. This is called a Running Os nap where AutoCAD automatically selects the nearest Osnap point without your intervention. Now let’s see how Running Osnaps works.
1. In the Draw toolbar, click the Arc tool, or type a↵. for other Arc options available from the pull-down menu. This figure shows each pull-down menu option name with a graphic above it depicting the arc and numbers indicating the sequence of points to select. For example, if you want to know how the Draw >Arc:> Start, Center, End option works, you C↵ look to the graphic at the bottom-right corner of the figure. It shows the point selection sequence for drawing an arc using that option; 1 for the start point, 2 fur the center point, and then 3 for the end of the arc.)
2. For the first point of the arc, move the cursor toward the intersection of the two lines as indicated in the first image, Notice that the Intersection Osnap marker appears on the intersection.
3. With the Intersection Osnap marker on the desired intersection, click the left mouse button.
4. Now move the cursor to the midpoint of the second horizontal line near the top. When the Midpoint Osnap marker appears at the midpoint of the line, press-the left mouse button.
5, Finally, use the Intersection Osnap marker to locate and select the intersection of the two-lines at the upper-left side of the bathtub. .
Next, you will draw an arc for the left side of the tub.
1. In the Draw tool bar, click the Arc tool again.
2. Type @.J. This selects the last point you picked as the start of the next arc.
3. Type E↵ to tell AutoCAD that you want to specify the other end of the arc, instead of the next point. Alternately, you can right-click and select End from the popup menu.
4. At the End Point prompt. use the Intersection Osnap to pick the intersection of the in the lower-left comer of the tub. See the middle image for the location of this point.
5. Type D.J to select the Direction option. You can also right-click and then select Direction from the popup menu. The arc drags as you move the cursor, along with a rubber-banding line from the starting point of the arc.
6. Move the cursor to the left of the dragging arc until it touches the middle line on the left side of the tub. Then pick that as shown in the middle image.
Now you will draw the bottom of the tub.
1. Click the Arc tool in the Draw toolbar again. You can also press↵ to replay the last command.
2. Using the End point Osnap marker, pick the endpoint of the bottom of the arc just drawn.
3. Using the Midpoint Osnap marker, pick the middle horizontal line at the bottom of the tub.
4. Finally, pick the intersection of the two lines in the lower-right comer of the tub.
Now create the right side of the tub by mirroring the left side.
5. Click the Mirror tool on the Modify toolbar.
6. At the Select objects: prompt, pick the long arc on the left side of the tub. The arc is highlighted. Press ↵ to indicate that you’ve finished your selection .
7. At the Specify first point of mirror line: prompt, pick the midpoint of the top horizontal line. By now, you should know how to use the automatic Osnap modes you set_up earlier.
8. At the Specify second point of mirror line: prompt, use the Polar Tracking mode to pick a point directly below the last point selected.
9. At the Delete source objects? [Yes/No] <N>:prompt, press .J to accept the default, No. A mirror image of the arc you picked appears on the right side of the tub. Your drawing should look like.
In this exercise, you were able to use the Osnaps in a Running Osnap mode. You’ll find that you will use the Osnaps nearly all the time as you create your drawings. For this reason, you may choose to have Running Osnaps on all the time. Even so, there will be times when running Osnaps may get in the way. For example, they may be a nuisance in a crowded drawing when you want to use a Zoom window. The Osnaps can cause you to select an inappropriate window area by automatically selecting Osnap points.
Fortunately, you can turn Running Osnaps on and off quite easily by clicking the OSNAP button in the status bar. This toggles the Running Osnaps’ on or off. If you don’t have any Running Osnaps set, then click the Object Snap tab of the Options dialog box.
Erasing the layout lines
For the next step, you will erase the layout lines you created using the Offset command. But this time, try selecting the lines before issuing the Erase command.
1.. Click each internal layout line individually.
If you have problems selecting just the lines, try using a window to select single lines. (Remember, a window selects only objects that are completely within the window.) You might also try the Object Selection Cycling option, as explained earlier in this chapter in the Selecting Close 0:Overlapping Objects sidebar.
2. Once all the layout lines are highlighted, enter E-1 to use the keyboard shortcut for the Erase command, or’ right-click and select Erase from the popup menu. Your drawing will look like.
If you right-click to use the popup menu in step 2, you’ll notice that you have several other options besides Erase. You can move, copy, scale, rotate, and mirror the objects you have selected. These options act just like the standard Modify toolbar options. Be aware that these commands act somewhat differently from the hot-grip options described.
Putting On the Finishing Touches
The inside of the tub still has some sharp comers. To round out these comers, you can use the versatile Fillet command on the Modify toolbar. Fillet allows you to join lines and arcs end to end, and it can add a radius where they join, so there is a smooth transition from arc to arc or line to line. Fillet can join two lines that do not intersect, and it can trim two crossing lines back to their point of intersection.
1. Click the Fillet tool on the Modify toolbar, or type f↵. You can also choose Modify » Fillet from the pull-down menu.
2. At the prompt
enter R↵ or right-click and select Radius from the popup menu.
3. At the Specify fillet radius <0 I -0 1/2′ >: prompt, enter 4.J. This tells AutoCAD that you want a 4″ radius for your fillet. Metric users will see a value of <10 . 0000> for the default radius. Go ahead and keep this value, but. keep in mind that you can alter the radius value at this prompt.
4. Press ↵ to invoke the Fillet command again; this time, pick two adjacent arcs. The fillet arc joins the two larger arcs. .
5. Press ↵ again and fillet another comer. Repeat until all four comers are filleted. Your drawing should look like.
6. Save and close the Bath file.
Aligning Objects Using Object Snap Tracking
You saw how to use lies to construct an object like the bathtub. In many situations. Using these construction lines is the most efficient way to draw, but they can also be a bit cumbersome. AutoCAD 2000 offers another tool that helps you align .locations in your drawing to existing objects without having to draw intermediate construction lines. The tool is called Object Snap Tracking or Osnap Tracking.
Osnap Tracking is like ‘an extension of Object Snaps that allows you to align a point to the geometry of an object instead of just selecting a point on an object. For example, with Osnap Tracking, you can select a point that is exactly at the ” center of a rectangle.
In the following set of exercises, you will draw a plan view of a bathroom sink’ as an introduction to the Osnap Tracking feature. This drawing will be used as a symbol in later chapters.
Doing a Quick Setup
First, as a review, you’ll open a new file using the Create New Drawing wizard. Since this drawing will be used as a symbol for insertion into other CAD drawings, don’t worry about setting it up to conform to a sheet size. Chances are, you won’t be printing out individual symbols.
1. Select File> New to create a new drawing for your bathroom sink.
2. In the Create New Drawing wizard, click the Use a Wizard button at the top to the far right of the window.
3. Select Quick Setup from the list box, then click OK.
4. In the Units dialog box, choose Architectural, then click Next. This option performs the same operation as the Drawing Units dialog box you saw earlier in this chapter.
5. In the Area dialog box/enter 48 for the width and 36 for the length. Metric users should enter 122 for the width and 92 for the length. Click Finish when you’ve entered the width and length values. This option performs the same operation as the Format > Drawing Limits command on the menu bar.
6. Click he GRID button in the status bar, then choose View >- Zoom >- All from the menu bar. This allows you to see your entire work area.
7. Use File >- Save As to save the file under the name of Sink.
As you saw in steps 4 and 5, the Create New Drawing wizard simplifies the drawing setup process by limiting the options you need to work with. Still, it helps to know what the wizard is really doing behind the scenes. Also, the wizard does not translate your work area into a plotted sheet size.
Drawing the Sink
Now you’re ready to draw the sink. Start with the outline of the sink counter top.
1. Click the GRID button in the status bar to turn off the grid. It was helpful to let you see the work area but you don’t need it now.
2. Click the Rectangle tool in the Draw toolbar or type rec↵.
3. At the prompt
enter 0,0.↵. This places one corner of the rectangle in the origin of the drawing.
4. At the Specify other corner point: prompt, enter @2’4,1’6..1. Metric users should enter @71,46..1. This makes the rectangle 2′-4″ wide by 1’_6″ deep or 71 cm by 46 cm for metric users. Your drawing will look like.
5. Use View >- Zoom >- Extents to enlarge the view of the sink outline. Then use the Zoom Real time tool in the Standard toolbar to adjust your view so it looks similar to the one shown.
Next you’ll draw the bowl of the sink. The bowl will be represented by an ellipse. You’ll want to place the center of the ellipse at the center of the rectangle you’ve just drawn. To do this, you will use the midpoint of two adjoining sides of the rectangle as alignment locations: This is where the Osnap Tracking tool will be useful.
First, make sure Running Osnaps are turned on and that they are set to the Midpoint option. Then make sure Osnap Tracking is turned on.
1. Right-click the OTRACK button in the status bar. The Object Snap tab of the Drafting Settings dialog box appears.
2. Make sure that the Midpoint option in the Object Snap Modes button group is checked.
3. Make sure also that Object Snap On and Object Snap Tracking On are both checked. Click OK.
Finally, you are ready to draw the ellipse.
1. Click the Ellipse tool in the Draw toolbar.
2. At the Specify is endpoint of ellipse or [Arc/Center]: prompt, type C or right-click and select Center from the popup menu.
3. Move your cursor to the top, horizontal edge of the rectangle, until you see the midpoint tool tip.
4. Now move the cursor directly over the Midpoint Osnap marker. Without clicking the mouse, hold the cursor there for a second until you see a small cross appear. Look carefully because the cross is quite small. This is the Osnap Tracking marker.
5. Now as you move the cursor downward, a dotted line appears, emanating from the midpoint of the horizontal line.
The cursor also shows a small X following the dotted line as you move it.
6. Now move the cursor to the midpoint of the left-hand vertical side of the rectangle. Don’t click, but hold it there for a second until you see the small cross. Now as you move the cursor away, a horizontal dotted line appears with an X following the cursor.
7. Now move the cursor to the center of rectangle. The two dotted lines appear simultaneously and a small X appears at their intersection .
8. With the two dotted lines crossing and the X at their intersection, click the left mouse button. You have selected the exact center of the rectangle.
9. Point the cursor to the right and enter 8↵ to make the width of the bowl 16″. Metric users should enter 20↵ for a 20 cm wide bowl.
10. Point the cursor downward and enter 6↵ to make the length of the bowl 12″. Metric users should enter 15↵ for a bowl with a length of 15 cm. The basic symbol for the sink is complete.
11. Choose File >- Save.You can exit AutoCAD now and take a break.
In this exercise, you saw how Osnap Tracking allowed you to align two locations to select a point in space. While you only used the Midpoint Osnap setting in this exercise, you are not limited to only one Osnap setting. You can use as many as you need to in order to select the appropriate geometry. You can also use as many alignment points as you need, although in this exercise, you only used two. If you like, erase the ellipse and repeat this exercise until you get the hang of using the Osnap Tracking feature:
Using Osnap Tracking and Polar Tracking Together
‘In addition to selecting as many tracking points as you need, you c;an also use different’ angles besides the basic orthogonal angles of 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees. For example, you can have AutoCAD locate a point that is aligned vertically to the top edge of the sink and at a 45° angle from a corner.
This can be accomplished by using the settings in the Polar Tracking tab of the Drafting Settings dialog box (see Setting the Polar. Tracking Angle earlier in this chapter). If you set the Increment angle to 45° and turn on the Track Using All Polar Angle Settings option, you will be able to use 45° in addition to the orthogonal directions, You’ll see firsthand , how this works.
As you draw, you will notice that you are alternately creating objects, and then copying and editing them. This is where the difference between hand drafting and CAD really begins to show.
Try drawing the wide flange beam shown. The figure shows you what to do, step by step. Notice how you are applying the concepts of layout and editing to this drawing.